This course covers a variety of topics described as follow: System of units, circuit variables and elements, simple resistive circuits, techniques of circuit analysis, Thevenin and Norton Theorem, inductors and capacitors, transient response of first order RL and RC circuits, natural and step response of RLC circuits, sinusoidal and complex forcing functions, phasors.

Introduction to electrical engineering (EE), ohm’s law, KVL/KCL, voltage divider & current divider circuits, nodal& mesh analysis, the principle of superposition, Thévenin& Norton Equivalents & the maximum power transfer theoremEnergy storage elements and their natural response Forced response of circuits excited by sinusoidal sources, phasors, AC circuit analysis methods, Filters (LP,HP,BP) Power in AC Circuits, Power Factor Correction and introduction to transformers.

Network Analysis includes the following areas of studyPhasor Algebra, AC impedance, frequency domain analysis, AC Power, Complex Power, polyphase circuits, power in polyphase systems, AC resonance, Complex frequency, network functions, magnetically coupled networks, frequency characteristics, resonant circuits, two-port networks, the Laplace transform, application of Laplace transform to circuit analysis.

Diodes, terminal characteristics, analysis of diode circuits, small signal model and applications, zener diodes, rectifier circuits, BJT's, analysis of transistor circuits at DC, transistor as an amplifier, small signal model and graphical analysis, single stage amplifier configuration, BJT as a switch, large scale model, BJT logic converter, field effect transistor (FET), Metal Oxide semiconductor FET (MOSFET), MOSFET circuits at DC, MOSFET as an amplifier, MOSFET single stage amplifier configurations, biasing in MOS amplifiers, MOSFET as a switch.

Frequency response of amplifiers,BJT Current Mirror, Wilson current mirror , Widler current mirror, MOSFET Current mirror, Differential amplifiers, Multistage amplifiers, feedback amplifiers and their configurations, feedback topologies, loop gain, stability using Bode plot, frequency compensation, output stages and power amplifiers, class –A amplifiers, class-B amplifiers, class-AB amplifiers, Biasing, IC power amplifier, MOS power transistors.

Properties of materials that are used for the manufacture of semiconductor devices and how these can be engineered to form functional devices are discussed That includes, general material properties, crystal structure, semiconductor lattices, Miller indices, quantization concept, bond and band energy models, band gap and material classification, intrinsic, n-type, p-type semiconductors and energy levels, carrier generation and properties, density of states, Fermi function, equilibrium carrier concentrations, drift and diffusion concepts with mathematical derivations, constancy of Fermi level, Einstein relationship, pn junction diodes, depletion region and built-in potential (vbi), diode biasing, avalanching and zener processes, bjts and other junction devices also the J-FET, MESFET and MOSFET their structures, band diagrams, carrier injection and transport equations.

This course teaches basics of electromagnetism the course starts with revision of vector algebra, coordinates systems and transformation vector calculus including Del operator, divergence theorem and Stoke’s theorem The course introduces electrostatic fields, energy densities and Maxwell equations The course also covers electromagnetic properties of materials and electrostatic boundary value problems.

Time- varying fields, Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, transformers, stationary circuits in time varying magnetic field, moving conductor in static magnetic field, moving conductor in time varying magnetic field, displacement current, Maxwell’s equations in differential and integral form, potential functions, electromagnetic boundary conditions, wave equations and their solutions, phasors and time harmonic fields, source-free fields, in simple media, the electromagnetic spectrum, plane electromagnetic wave in Lossy media, propagation of plane waves, group velocity, flow of electromagnetic power and Poynting vector, incidence of electromagnetic wave at a plane conducting boundary, incidence of electromagnetic wave at a dielectric boundary, incidence of electromagnetic wave at multiple dielectric boundary, total reflection, wave equation and characteristics of transmission law.

Number systems, Boolean and switching algebra, combinational logic, minimization, and programmable logic devicesSequential system fundamentalsArithmetic operations and circuits, MemoryHierarchical structuresDesign and applications Counters and registers, sequential logic applications, memory and storage elements.

Discrete time and continuous time signals, systems and properties of systems, linear time invariant (LTI) systems, Continuous time Fourier series and transform, discrete-time Fourier series and transform, Laplace-transforms, Z-transforms.

The Course Covers introduction to machinery principles, Faradays Law, production of induced force on a wire, induced voltage on a conductor moving in a magnetic field, transformers, the equivalent circuit of a transformer, AC machinery fundamentals, synchronous generators and motors, induction motors, DC machinery fundamentals, DC motors and generators, special purpose motors.

Complementary CMOS, Pass Transistor, Pseudo-NMOS and Dynamic logic families , RTL, DTL, TTL, ECL Logic families, gate designing and characteristics comparison, applications, flip-flops, counters, synchronous and asynchronous, shift registers, multiplexers, drivers, fan-out and fan-in, RAM, ROM, EPROM, EEPROM, TTL devices, CMOS devices, emitter-coupled logic, minimization of state machines, Digital design.

Ideal operational amplifier, terminal characteristics, inverting and non-inverting configurations, op-am difference and instrumentation amplifier, analysis of op amp with non-ideal parameters, op-amp differentiator, op-amp integrator, op-amp summer, op-amp log and antilog circuits, A/D and D/A converters, active filters, waveform-shaping circuits, timers, basic principles of sinusoidal oscillators (oscillator feed-back loop, oscillation criteria), Op-Amp-RC oscillator circuits(Wien-Bridge, phase-shift, quadrature) , multi-vibrators (bi-stable,a-stable and mono-stable), precision rectifier.

Wire, High frequency Resistors, High Frequency Capacitors, Inductors, Magnetic Cores, Toroidal Inductor Design, Practical Winding Hints, Resonance (Lossless Components), Loaded Q, Insertion Loss, Impedance Transformation, Coupling of Resonant Circuits, Modern Filter Design, Filter Response Types, Butterworth, Chebyshev, Bessel, Normalization and Lowpass Prototype, Frequency and Impedance Scaling, High pass filter design, The dual Network, Bandpass filter design, band rejection filter design, The effect of finite Q, Active Filter Design Techniques, Impedance Matching, The L Network, Three Element Matching, Low Q or Wideband Matching Network, The Smith Chart, Impedance Matching on Smith Chart, The Transistor at Radio Frequencies, The Transistor Equivalent Circuit, Y-parameters, S-parameters, Understanding RF Transistor Data Sheet, Small Signal RF Amplifier Design Transistor Biasing, Design using Y parameters, Design using S parameters, RF Power Transistor Characteristics, Transistor Biasing, Power Amplifier Design, Matching to Coaxial Feed lines, Broadband Transformers, Practical Winding, Signal Multipliers, High Frequency Mixers, Mixers Parameters, Double Balanced Modulators.

Characteristics of standard Transmission Lines; Transmission on a Lossless Transmission Line; Steady-State Conditions on a Transmission Line; Types of transmission lines Impedance Matching Techniques in Transmission linesThe Smith Chart; Antenna Theory Different types of antennas, linear antennas, helical and large aperture antennas Antenna Arrays Satellite Communication SystemsRADARs Modes of Radio wave Propagation Ground, Space and Sky Waves.

Introduction to Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), with emphasis on Programmable ASICs in particular Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs); Digital Design of High Speed Computational units; Floating-point and Fixed-point Architectures; Time-shared and Piepelined Architecture; Finite state machines; Xilinx FPGAs: the Spartan and Virtex Series of Device Families; Xilinx FPGA Architectures: Configurable Logic Blocks (CLBs), High Level Design Methodology using Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL); FPGA Configuration with FPGA Boards; Code Optimization in FPGA.

Microprocessor and microcontroller architecture focusing on hardware structures and assembly language programming skills essential for use of microprocessors and microcontrollers in data acquisition, control, and instrumentation systems by using A/D(Analog to digital) and D/A converters, RS232 and other communication standards, interrupts, timers, LCD modules, seven segment displays, keypads, sensors Appropriate laboratory exercises provide hands-on experience in two areas; microprocessor and micro-controller assembly language, and system interface hardware The aim of the course is to give the students a hands on experience on 8086 microprocessor and 8051 microcontroller.

The aim of this course is to study the architecture and programming languages of advanced microcontrollers PIC and AVR This course also provides the students a hands on experience of interfacing pic and avr microcontrollers with LCDs, PC serial port, USB and various other devices High level Programming languages like MikroC and MikroBasic are an essential part of this course.

General communication systems.Amplitude modulation (AM); time and frequency domains signal analysis Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier DSB/SC, Single Sideband (SSBFrequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) principles Frequency and Phase modulation (FM and PM); time and frequency domains signal analysis Sampling Process, Analog Pulse Modulation techniques, and Quantization Process Pulse Code. Modulation (PCM), Line coding, Time Division Multiplexing (TDM), Delta Modulation, and Differential PCM (DPCM) Baseband Pulse Transmission, Matched filter, Probability of errors, Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) , Ideal Nyquist channel, Equalization, and Eye pattern Hierarchy of Digital Modulation: ASK, PSK, FSK, QPSK, QAM, and MSK Differential Modulation techniques, M-ary techniques.

Size of Signals, Classification of Signals, Signal Operations, Unit Impulse Function, Step Function, Trigonometric Fourier Series, Exponential Fourier Series, Fourier Transform, Properties of Fourier Transform, Signals Transmission through Linear System, Ideals and Practical Filters, Signal Distortion over a Communication Channel, Energy Spectral Density Power Spectral Density, Autocorrelation, Cross correlation, Baseband and Carrier Modulation, Amplitude Modulation, Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC), Amplitude Modulation (DSB-C), Single Side Band (SSB), Vestigial Sideband, VSB), Super Heterodyne Receiver Angle Modulation, Bandwidth of Angle- Modulated Waves, Generations of FM waves, Phase Lock Loop, Demodulation of FM waves, Interference in Angle Modulated Systems, FM receivers , Behavior of Analog Systems in the presence of noise, Baseband systems, Amplitude modulated systems, Angle modulated Systems.

Classifications of signals, Spectral Density, Autocorrelation, Random Signals, Signal Transmission through Linear Systems, Sampling, Nyquist theorem, PAM, PWM, PPM, Pulse Code Modulation, Differential Pulse Code Modulation, Line Coding Techniques, Baseband Demodulation and Detection, A vectorial view of Signals and noise, , Gram-Schmidt Procedure, Maximum Likelihood Receiver Structure, The Matched Filter, Correlation Realization of Matched Filter, Error Probability Performance of Binary Signaling, Intersymbol Interference, Pulse Shaping to Reduce ISI, Equalization techniques, Eye diagram, Bandpass Modulation and Demodulation/Detection, Digital Bandpass Modulation Techniques (BPSK, DPSK, QPSK, M-ary PSK, QAM, BFSK, M-ary FSK, MSK) Signal Space Representations, Detection of signals in Guassian noise, Coherent Detection, Non-Coherent Detection, Error Performance of Binary and M-ary Signals.

Introduction to machinery Principles, for motor, generator and transformer action, Faraday's and Lenz's law, production of induced force, induced voltage on a wire moving in a magnetic field Transformers, Types and construction of transformer, approximate and exact equivalent circuit, open and short-circuit tests, voltage regulation and efficiency DC machinery fundamentals, Commutation in DC machine, power flow and losses in real dc machine DC machine as a motor, Equivalent circuit, Magnetization curve, separately excited dc motor, series dc motor, compounded dc motor, DC machine as a generator, separately excited, shunt and cumulative compounded dc generator, the differentially compounded DC generator Introduction to speed control of single phase and special-purpose motors and their types.

Power Generation Economics and Steam cycle analysis; Rankin cycle, Carnot cycle, regeneration of feed water heaters, super critical pressure cycle Combined cycle in power generation; Gas-steam turbine, energy analysis of combined cycles Fuels and combustion; energy balance of a steam generator, draught (or draft) system, fans, heat of combustion, heating values: enthalpy of combustion. Combustion mechanism, equipment and firing methods Steam generators; High pressure boilers Nuclear power plants; moderating power and moderating ratio, reflectors, heat transfer and fluid flow in nuclear reactors, types of reactors Hydroelectric power plant; hydrological cycle, hydraulic turbines types, specific speed. Diesel engine and Gas turbine power plant; Applications, combustion of CI engines Renewable Energy Resources, Solar Cells.

Distribution systems planning and automation: Planning and forecast techniques -- Load characteristics – definitions, load growth – tariffs - Diversified demand method. Distribution transformers:Types - regulation and efficiency - Use of monograms for obtaining efficiency - distribution factors – KW KVA Method of determining regulation Sub-transmission lines and distribution substations: Introduction – sub transmission systems - distribution substation – Substation bus schemes - description and comparison of switching schemes – substation location and rating - Application of network flow techniques in rural distribution networks to determine optimum location of sub-station. Primary systems: Introduction - types of feeders - voltage levels - Radial type feeders - feeders with uniformly distributed load and non-uniformly distributed loadssecondary systems: Introduction - secondary voltage levels - Secondary banking - existing systemsimprovement. Electrical center of gravity, its importance in designing systems with maxefficiencyviz-a-viz voltage and power lossesDistribution system Protection: Basic definitions - over current protection devices - fuses, automatic circuit re-closures, automatic line sectionalizers - objectives of distribution system protection - coordination of protective devices - Fuse to Fuse co-ordination, Fuse to circuit breaker coordination, reclosure to circuit breaker co-ordination. Voltage drop and power loss calculations: Three phase primary lines - non 3 phase primary lines - 4 wire multi grounded primary lines - copper loss - Distribution feeder costs - loss reduction and voltageimprovement in rural distribution networks. Applications of Capacitors to distribution systems: Effect of series and shunt capacitors - Power factor correction - economic justification for capacitors - a computerized method to determine the economic power factor – Procedure to determine the best and optimum capacitor location. Distribution System Voltage Regulation: Basic definitions - Quality of service – voltagecontrol - line drop compensation.

Introduction to control systems, Laplace transformation, block diagrams and signal flow graphs system, Mason's gain formula, mathematical modeling of electrical, mechanical and electromechanical systems, feedback characteristics, time domain analysis of first and second order systems, disturbance rejection and steady state error, State space analysis, Routh-Hurwitz's stability criteria, root locus analysis, root locus design, PI, PD and PID control, phase lead/lag control, state space design, controllability, observability and diagnolization, pole placement.

Operating characteristics of power semiconductor devices such as Bipolar Junction Transistors, IGBTs, MOSFETs and Thyristors The gate drives circuit characteristics, functional requirements and implementation techniques Understand the operation and characteristics of single and three phase rectifiers with resistive and inductive loads This includes un-controlled, semi controlled and fully controlled rectifiers Switching techniques, analysis and design for dc-dc conversion and types of dc-dc converters Operating techniques and analysis of dc-ac conversion, and pulse width modulation schemes to eliminate harmonics.

Resonant mode zero current and zero voltage switching pulse dc-dc converters topologies, and applications of multilevel inverters Operation and characteristics of different ac controllers’ topologies, and their performance analysis with inductive loads Operation and characteristics of static and microelectronics relays and switches Flexible Ac transmission system (FACTS) -Techniques for implementing the compensation by switching power electronics for controlling power flow Power supplies topologies operations and analysis Operating modes of dc drives, the speed and position control requirements of dc four-quadrant drives Electrical load diagram PWM Control using space vector theory.

Industrial Automation, its hierarchy, control systems and measurement systems are introduced The characteristics of op amps, different types of amplifiers using op amps, and wheatstone bridges are discussed for application in signal conditioning circuits The basics of sensors like rotation, displacement, temperature, force, pressure, level and flow are familiarized The actors like actuators, switches, relays, and motors deliberated The Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), SCADA and communication are studied in detail The principles of developing PLC programs and practical examples of control systems will be also presented The course provides individual hands-on experience in PLC programming.

Introduction to VLSI, VLSI design flow, design hierarchy, CMOS fabrication technology and design rules, the CMOSfabrication processes, CMOS layout design, Parasitic Extraction and Performance Estimation from Physical Structure, Interconnections, Wire Modeling, Clock Signals and System Timing, On-Chip Clock Generation and Distribution, Clock Skews and Glitches,Combinational Designs, Sequential Circuit Designs, Timing issues of Sequential Circuit Designs, SRAM and DRAM Design Techniques, Low-Power VLSI Circuits and Systems, Estimation and Optimization of Switching Activity, Reduction of Switched Capacitance, Integrated Systems Testing, Design Constraints, Fault Diagnosis and System Reliability.

Transmission lines and waveguides, Microwave Network Analysis, Impedance matching and tuning, microwave resonators, power dividers and couplers Microwave filter design.

Receiver synchronization, phase lock loop (PLL), steady state phase error response of PLL, carrier synchronization, symbol synchronization, narrow band digital modulation techniques, spread spectrum systems, signal spreading sequences, pseudo noise (PN) sequences, maximal sequence generator polynomial, maximal sequence generator design, pn sequence properties, gold codes, Walsh codes, direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), frequency hopping systems, frequency hopped spread spectrum (FHSS) signal spectrum, Slow Frequency Hopping, Fast Frequency hopping, Code Division Multiple Access, Code Synchronization, Code Synchronization in DSSS, Code Synchronization in FHSS, Signal Jamming Techniques, Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Error Performance in Gaussian noise and jamming, FHSS performance during jamming, CDMA Performance in AWGN channel, Spread Spectrum Commercial Applications, IS-95 CDMA Digital Cellular System, 3-G Mobile Communication Systems, Wireless Local Area Network.

Introduction to Wireless Communications, Modern Wireless Communication Systems, The Cellular Concept - System Design Fundamentals, Mobile Radio Propagation, Modulation Techniques for Mobile Radio, Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communications, Wireless Networking, Wireless System and Standards, AMPS, GSM, NB-CDMA,TDMA, WCDMA, CDMA2000, Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) and IMT2000, Bluetooth, Wireless Local Loop.

Discrete-time signals, sampling theory, interpolation and decimation, causality, stability, convolution of discrete signals, DT Fourier transforms, z-transforms, DFT, FFT algorithms, digital filter design techniques, IIR and FIR Filters.

Mathematical analysis of discrete and continuous information sources and communication channels, concepts of mutual information and entropy as mathematical measures for sources and channels, channel capacity, source and channel coding theorems Linear block codes with particular emphasis on cyclic codes Convolutional codes. Efficient decoding algorithms for block and convolutional codes Arithmetic codes, Shannon codes and ZIP codes.

Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN); PCM, Time Division Multiplexing (TDM); E1; T1; Signaling Systems; CAS; CCS; SS7; Digital Transmission Systems; Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH); Synchronous Digital Hierarchy(SDH); Integrated Digital Services Networks (ISDN); Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM); Digital Subscriber Line (DSL); Wi-Fi(IEEE 80211); WiMax(IEEE 80216); CATV; Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS); Multi-channel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS).

Introduction to Geometrical Optics, Lens assembly, Aberration theory, Aberration reductions, Photo luminescence and Electro Luminescence, Spectroscopy systems, throughput of spectrometers, resolution calculations, Interaction of optical light with materials, Raman Spectroscopy, Microscope designs, microscope resolution, Confocal Optical Microscopes, Scanning Electron microscopes (SEM) , X-ray diffraction analysis.

One-line diagram, choice of voltage and choice of AC/DC systems, economic comparison of various transmission systems, standard voltages in Pakistan and abroad for transmission and sub-transmission Introduction to HV, EHV and UHV system. Conductor and its types Ferranti effect Short, medium and long transmission lines, solution of equations Line supports, sag and tension calculationEffect of wind pressure and ice loading, conductor vibration and use of dampers Insulator material, types of insulators. Methods of improving the string efficiency, understanding corona Underground cables: types, calculation of inductance and capacitance, ins ulation resistance.

Review of basic concepts (including transformers, transmission lines and generators) Transmission-line parameters, steady-state operation of transmission lines and power flows including the Newton–Raphson method for balanced three-phase steady-state and normal operating conditions Symmetrical faults, symmetrical components, unsymmetrical faults Short-circuit protection, transient stability using swing equation, the equal-area criterion, and multi-machine stability Transient operation of transmission lines including power system over voltages and surge protection.

Basics of Organizational Management, Introduction to TQM and ISO, Basics of Production and Operation Management, Cost benefit analysis in decision making, Introduction to statistical decision making, Introduction to HRM, Introduction to Project Management, Basic Micro & Macro Economic Principles: Engineering Perspective, Basic Economic Models, Introduction to World Economic Scenario and WTO, Supply and Demand, Economic Value Addition:, Capital budgeting techniques: NPV, IRR, Payback Period, Adjusted Payback Period, Accounting Rate of Return, Basics of financial and managerial accounting, Time value of money: present value of future cash flows, future value of present cash flows, Financial Management: theories and practices, Understanding profit and loss account, balance sheet, cash flow statement, Estimation of risk and return, Basics of working capital, managing current assets, managing accounts payables and short-term financing.

Introduction to computer networks: hardware and software, reference models, transmission media, wireless transmission, the telephone system, ATM, The data link layer: error detection and correction The medium access sub-layer: MAC protocols, IEEE 8023 for LANs and MANs, frame structure, addressing, fast Ethernet, Wi-Fi 80211 b,g The network layer: internetworking, IP (Internet Protocol), header structure addressing, CIDR, VLSM, sub-netting, routing, RIP, OSPF The transport layer: the transport service, TCP and UDP The application layer: ports and services.

The aim of these courses is to sharpen the skills of electronic engineering students by making them participate in projects that will be identified in collaboration with the industry Every project will be supervised by a faculty advisor Students will have the option of working independently or jointly (in small groups) on the projects Progress will be monitored through interim presentations and reports A final report will be due at the end of the term.

This course will cover application aspects of Linear Algebra Main Topics covered will be Linear Systems, Vector Spaces Inner product, Least square approximation, orthogonality concepts Eigen value and Singular value decomposition, Linear Dynamical Systems, Iterative methods, Boundary Value problems and Greens’ function.

This course will provide essential concepts and principles of Probability theory and its applications to Electrical Engineering The topics include review of Basic axioms and corollaries of probability theory with Venn diagrams, concepts of outcome, events, probability space and Bayes’ theorem Random Variables, Probability Density function, cumulative distribution functions, transform methods, multiple random variables, function of several Random Variables, sums of random Variables, Central limit theorem and confidence intervals.

Theory of functions of a complex variable Fourier & Laplace transforms Applications to engineering problems.

Set-theoretic basis of probability Probabilistic modeling of practical problems. Random variables in one and several dimensions.Functions of random variables.Moments, characteristic functions, correlation, sampling.Poisson process Laws of large numbers and central limit theorem.

Review of vector analysis, electrostatics in free space, electrostatic fields in matter, solution techniques and boundary value problems, steady electric current, magnetostatics in free space, magnetostatic fields in matter, time-varying electromagnetic fields, propagation of electromagnetic waves, wave reflection and transmission, simple waveguides, simple antennas and radiation.

Basic antenna theory, dipoles, loops, arrays, the method of moments, antenna measurements, aperture antennas, frequency independent antennas, receiving antennas, optimization, propagation.

Basic antenna theory, dipoles, loops, arrays, the method of moments, antenna measurements, aperture antennas, frequency independent antennas, receiving antennas, optimization, propagation.

Introduction Motivation Applications, Fundamentals and Background Material, Least- Mean-Square (LMS) Algorithm, Recursive Least-Squares (RLS) Algorithm, Adaptive Lattice Filters.

Introduction to optimum receiver design in the additive white Gaussian noise environment Topics include efficient signal set design, modulation techniques, matched filter, correlation detector, coherent & non-coherent detections, fading & diversity channels, random amplitude & phase, diversity techniques, performance bounds of communications, & waveform communications.

Theory and practice of advanced error-control coding techniques Topics include trellis codes, multidimensional codes, Leech lattice, rotationally invariant codes, spectral analysis and transform coding Applications of contemporary coding theory in mobile communications, magnetic and optical recording, high-speed modem, and high-density data storage design are presented.

Introduction to the theory and applications of modern satellite communications Topics include satellite channel characterization, channel impairments and transmission degradation, link calculations, modulation, coding, multiple access, broadcasting, random access schemes, demand assignment, synchronization, satellite switching and onboard processing, integrated service digital satellite networks, and satellite transponder, ground stations, packet switching, optical satellite communications.

Overview of mobile communications, characterization and modeling of wireless fading dispersive channels, optimum receiver structure, transmission performance in fading channels, diversity and performance improvement, co-channel interference, spread spectrum and multiple access, capacity analysis in cellular environments.

Optical radiation generation and spectral distribution, line-width and probability of transitions. Atomin energy levels and decay rates, quantization of radiation and photons Spontaneous and stimulated emissions, absorption, population inversion.Two and three level laser systems and rate equations.Resonant cavities and Fabry-Perot cavity.Gain and losses in laser cavity.Continuous wave and pulsed lasers, mode locking and q-switching Various laser systems, semiconductor lasers, LED, quantum well lasers, distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, vertical cavity surface emission (VCSEL) lasers, II-VI compound blue and green laser diodes, He-Ne and Argon gas lasers, solid state lasers, Nd-Yag and frequency doubled lasers, tunable liquid dye lasers.

Fundamentals of semiconductors, p and n type materials Basic P-N junctions Absorption of optical waves in p-n junction, carrier generation and recombination under illumination, carrier diffusion and drift speeds, carrier mobility Photo-voltaic operation, Fundamentals of optical detection and bandwidth, quantum efficiency, noise characteristics, dark current, thermal effects, Si, Ge, GaAs, InP, GaN and II-VI material optical characteristics, P-I-N band structures and detectors, frequency response of optical detectors, high frequency detectors, Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD), Position Sensitive Detectors (PSD), CMOS detectors, charge coupled devices and CCD detectors.

Static Equation Representation and Solution Transition Matrix and their general properties Internal Stability of LTV & LTIV cases. Controllability and observability and minimal realization Input output Stability State feedback and state observation design using eigen value, assignment Discreet Control.

Sample-and-hold Discretization of analog systemsDiscrete-time systems analysis and designPole-assignment design and state-estimation Sampled-data transformation of Analog filters Digital filter structures. Microcomputer implementation of digital filterseffects of sampling on controllability and observability, internal stability; Linear quadratic optimal control.

Introduction to dynamic systems, models, and identification process, Models of linear time invariant systems, Models of time-varying and nonlinear systems, Parametric estimation methods, Convergence and consistency of solutions, Asymptotic distribution, Recursive and non-recursive computation methods, Model selection and validation.

Introduction, Real-time parameter estimation, Auto-tuning, Gain scheduling, Self-tuning, regulators, Model-reference adaptive systems, Stability, convergence, and robustness, Stochastic adaptive control, Alternatives to adaptive control, Implementation, Applications and case studies.

Interrelationships between the architecture and systems software of a modern minicomputer: configuration; real-time operating systems; memory management; interactive editor, program scheduling; priority levels; swapping; input/output control; resource management Real time programming languages.

Introduction to Intelligent Systems, Human Intelligence and Computational Intelligence, Neural Networks (Single and Multi-Layer Feed forward Neural Networks, Associative Memories, Learning Vector Quantization, Self-Organizing Maps, Applications To Pattern Recognition), Fuzzy Logic (Introduction, Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Classifiers), Evolutionary Computation (Introduction To Genetic Algorithms, Models, Operators, Selection Schemes, Application To Optimization), Hybrid Intelligent Systems.

Issues in classical optimization techniques, Introduction to evolutionary computation, Principles of evolutionary processes, Genetic algorithms, Representation of data, Selection methods, Search operators, Fitness evaluation, Constraint handling techniques, Population structure, Genetic Programming, Evolutionary strategies, Meta evolutionary approaches, Self-adaptation, Implementation issues, Multi-objective optimization Algorithms using GA: MOGA, NSGA, NPGA Performance evaluation metrics for multi-objective optimization using GA.

Image processing fundamentals, Image file formats, Digital image enhancement in spatial and frequency domain, Image segmentation, Image representation, Digital image restoration, Wavelets and multi-resolution processing, Image compression techniques, Morphological image processing, Color image processing.

Segmentation, De-noising of Images, wavelet transforms object detection and tracking.

Signal detection and enhancement, signal characterization, Tracking, Filtering s parameter estimation, propagating waves, dispersion and attenuation, refraction and diffraction, wave ember-frequency space, apertures and arrays, spatial sampling, beam-forming, array gain, detection theory, hypothesis testing, detection based array processing algorithms, estimation theory, parameter estimation, linear signal waveform estimation, spectral estimation adaptive array processing, constrained optimization, eigen-analysis method, dynamic adaptive methods, Tracking, source motion models, prediction correlation algorithms, multi-array tracking in clutter.

Hypothesis testing and parameter estimation Series representation of random processes. Detection and estimation of known signals in white and nonwhite Gaussian noise.Detection of signals with unwanted parameters.

Radar system requirements and principles of radar detection and parameter estimation Factors affecting radar range, signal detection in noise, decision criteria Target identification techniques. Radar antenna characteristics.Time-space-frequency-phase interrelationships.

Time varying electromagnetic fields Field theorems, propagation and reflection of waves, wave guides, resonators, radiation, and diffraction. Applications to antenna theory.

Functional analysis, method of moments, and variational methods Applications to electrostatics, magneto-statics, two-dimensional electromagnetic fields, antennas, scatterers, and apertures.

Concepts of feasibility, convexity and optimality (minimum/maximum), To gain familiarization with single-search methods, and some well-known gradient / conjugategradient and direct search techniques of unconstrained optimization To understand and apply the Kuhn-Tucker conditions to constrained minima To familiarize with penalty-functions approach for constrained optimization. To learn the fundamentals of Calculus of Variations to be able to apply direct vibrational methods of Ritz and GalerkinTo be able to formulate a non-linear optimization problem from a live situation and to compute its numerical solution using Mathematical software.

The aim of this module is to introduce students to more advanced topics in digital communication systems and to provide students with up-to-date knowledge of the techniques used in digital communication systems including more advanced topics in digital wireless communication systems This module covers channel modeling, coding, digital transmission through wireless channels, advanced error control techniques, spread spectrum, multi-carrier digital transmission (OFDM and MIMO), and their applications in wireless and cellular mobile communication systems.

Intro to spread spectrum communications Topics : pseudo-noise spread spectrum systems, feedback shift registers, jamming strategy, code acquisition, synchronization, tracking, Gold codes, burst-communication systems, time-hopping, frequency-hopping, & multiple access communications.

Basics of analog and digital video: color video formation and specification, analog TV system, video raster, digital video formats, Frequency domain analysis of video signals, spatial and temporal frequency response of the human visual system Scene, camera & motion modeling, 3D motion & projected 2D motion, models for typical camera/object motions 2D motion estimation: optical flow equation, different motion estimation methods (pel-based, block-based, mesh-based, global motion estimation, multi-resolution approach) Basic compression techniques: information bounds for lossless &lossy source coding, binary encoding, scalar/vector quantization Waveform-based coding: transform coding, predictive coding including motion compensated prediction & interpolation, block-based hybrid video coding, scalable video coding Video compression standards (H261 and H263, MPEG1, MPEG2, MPEG4, MPEG7) Error control in video communications Video transport over the Internet & wireless networks.

Fundamental principles of optical waveguides Mode formation in waveguides Evanescent waves and confinement of modes2-D slab waveguides, cutoff wavelengths and fundamental modes Propagation constants calculations and dependence on parameters. Mode coupling and multimode interference devices (MMI)3-D planar waveguides, transverse and longitudinal modes in 3-D structures TE, TM, TEM modes Optical fiber waveguides and LP modes in circular geometry Step index and graded index fibers, single and multimode fibers Absorption losses and dispersion in waveguides, pulse broadening Waveguide couplers, power splitters, directional couplers Y- junctions and S-bends Optical integrated circuits design (OIC).

Advanced topics of current interest in communications, which are taken from publications and industrial information.

Basic concepts, Linear and piece-wise linear techniques, Potential and stochastic approximation, Boolean and sequential decision making, Contextual, linguistic and array techniques, Coefficient analysis, Pattern preprocessing and feature selection, Learning decision functions, Pattern classification by distance functions, Pattern classification by likelihood functions.

Basic concepts of Neural-Computing, Learning processes, Single-layer perceptrons, Multilayer perceptrons, Radial-basis function networks, Strategies for avoiding over fitting, Support vector machines, Committee machines, Principal components analysis using neural networks, Self-organizing maps, Information-theoretic models, Stochastic machines, Neurodynamic programming, Temporal processing using feed forward networks, Neurodynamics, Recurrent neural networks.

Intelligent control strategies: Expert systems, Fuzzy logic control, neural networks Optimization control techniques: genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, Tabu search Hybrid systems, Applications.

Basic concepts of robotics. Mathematical description of industrial manipulator. Homogeneous transformation and the Denavit-Hartenberg notationTransformation between framesforward, and inverse kinematics and dynamics Newton - Euler and Lagrange formulations Joint space, and Cartesian space trajectories and dynamic controlTrajectory planning Advance control schemes.

Static Optimization, Optimal Control of Discrete-Time and Continuous-Time Systems, The Tracking Problem and other LQR extensions, Final-Time Free and Constrained Input Control and Dynamic Programming.

Elements of robust control theory Norms of signals & systems. Performance specifications.Stability and performance of feedback systems.Performance limitations.Model uncertainty and robustness.Parameterization of stabilizing controllers Loop transfer recovery robust design control and filtering.

Modern Trends in Intelligent Systems and Controls will be covered in this course.

Evolutionary techniques, Supervised Neural Network, Un-supervised Neural Network, Recursive learning algorithm .

Selected topics will be taught by the teacher .

Adaptive Beam-formers, Parameter Estimation; Maximum Likelihood, Quadratic Algorithms, Subspace Algorithms, Beamspace Algorithms, Optimum Detection.

Estimation of continuous waveforms, linear estimation, nonlinear modulation theory, detection of Gaussian signals, general binary detection: Gaussian processes, special categories of detection problems.

Estimation of the parameters of a random process, Special categories of Estimation Problems, Detection and Parameter Estimation of Slowly Fluctuating Point Targets, Doppler-Spread Targets and Channels, Range-Spread Targets and Channels, Doubly-Spaced Targets & Channels.

Models for linear systems & stochastic processes, estimation techniques, Kalman filter derivation using innovations and Bayesian approaches, Kalman filter for Gauss-Markov model, Kalman filter design methodology, extended Kalman filters.

Modern Trends in Radar Systems Engineering will be covered in this course.

MIMO signal models and equalization, MIMO channel models including Rayleigh, Ricean, correlated, and models from different standards, Capacity of MIMO channels with different degrees of channel state information, Average probability of error and diversity, Spatial multiplexing with linear and nonlinear receivers, Pre-coding and multi-mode pre-coding for spatial multiplexing, Limited feedback pre-coding& codebook design, Space-time block codes including orthogonal, quasi-orthogonal, and rate-1, Multiuser MIMO communication, Overview of MIMO information theory, Practical Multiuser MIMO methods with linear and nonlinear processing, Multiuser limited feedback, Overview & application of MIMO to IEEE 80211n, Overview & application of MIMO to IEEE 816ee / WiMax, Overview & application of MIMO to 3GPP Long Term Evolution.

Preface; Standard notation; Space-time coding notation; Abbreviations; 1Introduction; 2Capacity of multiple-input multiple-output channels; 3Space-time code design criteria; 4Orthogonal space-time block codes; 5Quasi-orthogonal space-time block codes; 6Space-time trellis codes; 7Super-orthogonal space-time trellis codes; 8Differential space-time modulation; 9Spatial multiplexing and receiver design; 10Non-orthogonal space-time block codes; 11Additional topics in space-time coding; Bibliography.

Adaptive Wireless Transceivers provides the reader with a broad overview of near instantaneously adaptive transceivers in the context of TDMA, CDMA and OFDM systems The adaptive transceivers examined employ powerful turbo codecs, turbo equalizers and space-time codecs, equipping the reader with a future-proof technological road map It demonstrates that adaptive transceivers are capable of mitigating the channel quality fluctuations of the wireless channel as a lower-complexity alternative to space-time coding By contrast, if the higher complexity of multiple transmitters and multiple receiver-assisted systems is deemed acceptable, the advantages of adaptability erode.

Advanced topics of student’s area of research in communications, which are taken from publications and industrial information.

Introduction to nonlinear dynamics and control Overview of phase plane analysis, describing function and limit cycles. Lyapunov stabilityInput/output stabilityInput/output linearization.Stabilization and control of nonlinear systems.

Synthesis and implementation of digital control systems for complex systems; control configurations; process modeling and identification; Multivariable Control; dynamic matrix control and internal model control; adaptive control systems; Supervisory and optimizing control; applications and case studies for distillation, combustion, heat exchangers, and flow reactors; recent developments in computer process control.

Nonlinear PCA, Kernel Machines, Combination of Classifiers, Data clustering, Fuzzy clustering, Wavelet applications in pattern recognition, Assessing and comparing classification algorithms, Advanced evaluation methods—statistical, Algorithm-independent methods (Bootstrap, Jackknife, Bagging, Boosting, …), Hidden Markov models, Bayesian learning.

Theoretical foundations of Genetic Algorithms (GA), Evolution strategies, Applications of GA in constrained nonlinear optimization problems, Diploid Genetic Algorithms, Recent advances in Genetic Programming (GP), Survey of representative applications of evolutionary algorithms in multi-objective optimization problems, Immune inspired systems and their performance comparison with GA and GP, Reading of Recent Journal papers related to evolutionary computation, Implementation of application of Evolutionary, Computation in some applications.

Modern Trends in Intelligent Systems and Control will be covered in this course.

Modern Trends in Power Systems & Controls will be covered in this course.

Modern Trends in Pattern Recognition will be covered in this course.

Modern Trends in Signal Image Processing will be covered in this course.

Modern trends in Control Systems will be covered in this course.